Summer 2016

Intaglio Icons

May 16, 2016

One of my biggest printmaking influences has always been Albrecht Durer. Durer used the intaglio technique to create engravings like this piece The Knight, Death, and the Devil. Intaglio printmaking involves engraving or etching an image into metal plates, usually copper or zinc. The lines of the image on the plate are then wiped with ink, and damp paper can be rolled through the press over the plate to absorb the ink from the engraved lines.


One of Durer’s most famous iconic images is actually a woodcut, however. This very well known image of a rhinoceros became what Europeans believed this strange animal looked like.

0780da2352e0572c5ab18c626c6decb3Durer created this image from a second hand description and a small sketch from another artist that saw what has become known as the Lisbon Rhinoceros. After researching the story of this rhinoceros, it was the animal itself and its journey that interested me even more than the image. The Lisbon Rhinoceros began its journey from the palace of a sultan in India as a political gift to the King of Lisbon. Displayed in the Lisbon palace menagerie, people flocked to see this strange animal. The King then sent the rhinoceros by ship to the Pope in order to gain his favor. On the way, the rhino stopped in Marseilles and was visited by the King of France and amazed crowds of onlookers. Unfortunately, on the next leg of the journey, a storm sank the ship, and the Lisbon Rhinoceros died at sea. Even though this animal died, it was able to live on for the next five hundred years through Durer’s iconic image.

In my own work I use reconstructions of extinct strange animals to revive the same sense of discovery and amazement that captivated people when the Lisbon Rhinoceros came to Europe. During my independent study I will be working with my own image of a prehistoric rhinoceros inspired by the story of the Lisbon Rhino and Durer’s stylized image.


Here is the sketch for the piece I will be creating in the first half of summer. The background will be created by two large scale intaglio prints pulled from 36”x 24” plates. The rhino and the rock in the center will be a clay sculpture. The surface of the piece will have slip inlay and carving in order to merge the sculpture with the prints. I will be using smaller plates to bring cut out images into the foreground.


May 23, 2016

Etching is a long process that begins with a bare plate of copper, or in my case zinc. These soft metals are able to be scratched into, and scratched lines can be etched deeper with nitric acid. This is one of my 36”x 24” zinc plates. The first step is to scour the coating off the metal using comet and scotch brite pads. This polishes and smooths the surface and removes grease from the surface of the plate.



Next, the plate is coated in “hard ground”. This is a mixture of asphaltum (tar) and mineral spirits. This mixture is able to resist the acid bath, so that only the lines scratched through the hard ground will etch.


My sculpture has started this week as well. Using a steel pipe armature to hold up the weight, the sculpture is built solid, and later hollowed out.


The roughed out form of the rhino on the rock is now ready for hollowing and then details. I will be carving into the surface of this piece to do slip inlay later on.

Planning and Drawing

May 30, 2016

In order for the image I create on the plates to be enlarged, I had to rework the original drawing several times, using a large format print, and then tracing paper, and finally a transfer of the drawing to the plates themselves.


This is the large format print, a scanned, enlarged and reversed version of the original sketch. In order to print the right way from the plate, the image has to be reversed from the original.


Tracing paper is put over these prints so that the drawing can be reworked for more detail at the new larger scale. Things like the ship changed a lot from the original small drawing.

DSC06273Next, the drawing had to be transferred to the plate itself. I used newsprint coated with iron oxide that contrasts well with the dark color of the hard ground coating. The tracing paper drawings were gone over in pen with this iron oxide sheet underneath the iron oxide lines are transferred to the plate so they can be etched.


Here the lines transferred from the drawing have been traced with etching tools to cut through the hard ground coating. The plate that is now exposed in these lines is vulnerable to the acid bath and will etch deeper with each exposure in order to hold ink.

Carving into Clay

June 6, 2016


The finished prehistoric rhinoceros has now been smoothed and is ready for carving. For this piece I will be using a method of slip inlay called mishima. There are many different techniques that can be used to create this effect. I prefer using wax and carving through it so the black slip only goes into the lines I carve. This technique allows me to create cleaner, finer lines.

First, I cover the piece in white slip. This will help the piece blend in with the black and white of the prints I am creating. Next came the wax, some preliminary drawing on the surface, and then carving and slip inlay.


Etching Process

June 13, 2016


Before etching the large plates, a test plate was used to determine the amount of time needed in the acid to produce different line quality. This test plate was submerged for specific amounts of time, and then masked in areas to prevent further etching. By using the line quality from different parts of the large plates in each section, I was able to see which lines I preferred at which time increments. Using this time scale, I was able to know when to etch lines deeper, or mask them off on the larger plates.


The etching process begins by dipping the plates in an acid bath. The bath is one part nitric acid and twelve parts water. This is a slightly weaker ratio to allow fine lines to be etched slowly. A brush is used to remove bubbles from the surface of the plate as it etches to prevent uneven etching.


As the plate is etched certain lines are masked with hard ground to prevent them from becoming deeper. Spray paint is used in the wide lines to create aquatint. The acid works around the small dots of spray paint creating a darker area that is rougher and holds more ink.


Lines can also be added in between acid baths, creating even more variation in the depth and thickness of line quality. I added most of the sky lines and shading in the clouds after the foreground had etched and had aquatint. The lines in the clouds were built up in between acid baths multiple times to create value using only line.

After the etching is complete, the plates will be ready for cleaning and the “proof” prints which will determine whether more work needs to be done to them.

Printing Proofs

June 20, 2016

In the first stage of printing the plates have to be cleaned. The hard ground is removed using mineral spirits and lacquer thinner. All the lines must be clean in order to hold ink.



Once the plate is cleaned, the proof prints can be pulled. Proofs allow the artist to judge if editing needs to be done. Certain lines can be improved, buffed out, or the whole plate can be coated again for etching and reworked.


This is an example of a print station. The plate first has to be coated with ink using passes of each direction to evenly coat the surface. Several passes of wiping with tarlatan (a softened starch fabric) remove ink a little at a time. Newsprint is used to wipe the last of the ink off the surface and clean all the high points leaving ink only in the lines of the plate.


The printing press must be set with the correct pressure in order to press the paper into the lines of the plate. The paper has to be soaked in water  overnight to soften it enough to be pressed into the plate.



Here are the proof prints. Using these I was able to decide on marks I wanted to try and erase in the final prints, and areas that required more attention during ink wiping.

Final Prints and Display

June 27, 2016


After assessing the quality of the proof prints, final prints are pulled. The plate must be completely coated with ink using a squeegee or stiff piece of cardboard. No modifiers were added to the ink in order to preserve the inks stiff nature when the print is pulled. This makes the wiping process take much longer, but the end result is ink lines that stand up and have texture on the paper.



First, tarlatan cloth is used to wipe off the majority of the ink. It is soft enough to keep the ink in the lines but remove it from the smooth surfaces of the plate. Newsprint is used to hand wipe the last of the ink from the plate until the high points are smooth and clean of all ink.


The large sheets of paper we used for the project had to be soaked over night to make them soft enough to press into the lines of the plate. The paper is then dried with clean towels and laid on top of the inked plate on the press.


The printing press bed is tightened until it can apply the necessary pressure to force paper into the lines on the plate.


Prints are pulled off the plate diagonally so as not to make gaps in the ink from the straight lines of the plate.



The final large prints were seamed and mounted to a sheet of thin plexi glass. This corner shelf has a routed groove that supports the plexi at a slight curve around the piece. The final display merges the sculpture with the printed background to create an illusion of space and provide a scene for the narrative to take place.

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The White Hart

This piece was inspired by the prehistoric giant deer called Megaloceros that lived during the ice age. Also known as the Irish Elk, this deer was around 8 feet tall, and had an impressive 12 foot antler span. It was actually an ancestor of the modern fallow deer which has similar palmate antlers, but is much smaller in body size.

My goal for this piece was to introduce more fantasy into my work. I was researching stories and myths associated with deer that I remembered from my childhood, and came across the myth of the White Hart. Hart is the archaic word for a mature stag. The myth is connected with many different cultures; Celts, English, German, and even Native Americans have stories connected to a magical white deer. However, these deer actually do exist, and not as albinos. They have dark eyes, and the normal coloring on their noses. Scientifically, these deer have developed a rare genetic pattern called Leucism that reduces the natural red/brown pigment in their hair to white. This same condition is found in the rare white lion as well.


A white fallow deer, today’s White Hart.

In many of these cultures they were believed to have a magical ability to evade capture, and represented mankind’s spiritual quest. In Celtic mythology the white hart was a messenger from the spirit world. Mostly recognized for its connection to English mythology, the White Hart was a symbol of the king, and protected for royal hunts. The magic of the stag is that it is not to be killed, but will lead the hunter in the joy of the chase to new adventures in order to capture happiness. In modern times the white stag is a vestige of the pure beauty of nature.


In the rough wet work stage of the sculpture I focus on proportion, gesture, and musculature. I leave off small details like fur texture, ears, and anything thin like the antlers would be. These legs are fairly thin, so I am able to cut them off and leave them solid, but the rest of the body has to be hollowed out and reassembled.


I start with the head, and cut small sections using registration marks to help put things back together. The clay has to be very stiff to hold its shape during this part of the process, so I let the thickest parts dry out longer and cover the smaller areas.


All the clay inside is first gauged out with loop tools, and then I smooth and compress the walls of the piece with a butter knife. Once the whole piece is hollow, the sections can be reassembled using clay slip to attach them.




Keeping most of the piece covered, I was able to sculpt the antlers in place from slabs. I always use the real thing as a reference for texture when I can. The bricks and clay lumps helped hold up the antlers while I cut in the prongs and shaped them. Once the clay was stiff and leather hard, I cut the antlers back off the head and fired them separately, leaving a hole for the peg of the antler to go back into later.

The furniture parts were made from hand carved originals that were cast in plaster and press molded to have identical multiples. The cushion was built with a large slab draped over polyfill and manipulated from underneath. The slab built edge around the cushion was added after I conformed it to body of the bisque ware deer.


The weight of the deer on the soft slab supported by polyfill made an impression for the body to rest in without collapsing it.

I decided on the surfaces and color palette for glazing through multiple quick watercolors like this one.



The finished piece. Materials include ceramic, low fire and mid-range glazes, gold leaf, flocking, wax encaustic, scenery building materials, and 3-D printed miniature buildings. The antlers and furniture parts were glued in place after the final glaze firing. I use apoxie sculpt and paint to hide these post-fire attachments.


Clear glaze was used on the eyes and nose to make them seem more alive. The glaze used for the fur was Laguna Snowflake (a commercial glaze that I fired to cone 5 with a slow cooling program to produce micro-crystals).


Here is a detail of the 3-D printed buildings in the antlers. These were made using open source files on Thingiverse. I used the library 3-D printing facilities at UF to print them to this miniature scale. Next I applied the same grass flock and moss effects used in the scenery and paint to make them look older. The trees and grass are generally used for train set builders to create scenery. The materials were easy to use and manipulate. I found that they create a surprisingly realistic effect for miniature scenery.



The element of the ancient ruins in this piece were inspired by the series Course of Empire by Thomas Cole. In these works, Cole sought to reveal the stages of human civilization, and the constant repetition of history. The poem Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage by Byron is quoted by Cole as an inspiration for this series:

There is the moral of all human tales;

‘Tis but the same rehearsal of the past.
First freedom and then Glory – when that fails,
Wealth, vice, corruption – barbarism at last.
And History, with all her volumes vast,
Hath but one page…

This poem was inspiring to me as well. I am interested in theories of mass extinction, and the objects and structures that would remain as fossil evidence of our civilizations. The ruins in the deer’s antlers are icons of civilization, and its remains: the temple, the dome, the fountain, and the obelisk. The piece of furniture I made for this piece is an homage to the craftsmen of the past, and the beautiful objects that remain. Part of the importance of using clay to make the furniture was to emphasize the value of virtuosity and skill craft.


This piece was a real turning point for me in graduate school so far. The White Hart contains the fantasy, mythos, and narrative that I am striving for in my new work. I enjoyed implementing the influences from working with my dad restoring antique French furniture, and my love for the Rococo style. This piece also embodies the ideas of Romanticism in the emphasis on the passage of time, and the strength and beauty of nature.

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Welcome to UF Ceramics

I am now most of the way through my first year of graduate school at the University of Florida. This is my new studio space. It has been great to have a communal space with my fellow grads and share ideas with them.

I always put up a ton of images when I move studios. Most of them are constant inspirations that always move with me. I find that having them in my peripheral vision while I work keeps them in the back of my mind and influences my ideas.

Here are some of the experiments I have been working on in the studio.


I started out my first semester with a pile of tests, studies, and maquettes. Most of these become surface tests for larger pieces.


Working out some new ideas on the small scale. None of these wood pieces were fired, but I used them to get a 3d visual of what was in my sketches.




I was researching the howdah (seats on elephant back) and I was interested in the way it creates a place for humans on the back of an elephant. Inspired by this, I looked at other human structures such as the river houses in Thailand and Cambodia where the elephants support much of the economy through labor and tourism. 


I spent a lot of time in my first semester studying different gestures for elephants and applying them to prehistoric elephants like this Steppe Mammoth. This ancestor of the wooly mammoth was much larger, and lived about 600,000-300,000 years ago in Europe and Asia.

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Many elephants today crouch on their elbows to reach low water levels with their trunk.



This cliff was solid built on an armature on the wall so that I could fit the mammoth to it. I fired them as separate pieces so that I could transport the piece more easily. Liking this idea, I wanted to add even more gravity defying materials in order to make this piece really precarious.


The base of the structure became the ceramic “howdah” on the blanket on the mammoth’s back. I decided to use small pieces of wood to construct the structure on his back, knowing that it would be too fragile to be made of clay. I used the same wood used by architecture students to build their scale models. It was strong, and easy to cut. I used a dremel saw blade to rough up each small piece and make it look older. Thin sheets of wood and cardboard made up the roofs and flooring.


I stripped the cardboard of its top layer, and used gray paint on the cardboard to make it look like corrugated metal. Mayco Magic Metallics are paints specifically designed to mimic the natural patina of metal, including rust. I painted these on over the gray to create a realistic rusted look.


Gluing these small pieces together allowed me to create a large structure that held together quite well. I broke parts of the structure and re-glued them to make them appear as if they were in the process of breaking and snapping.


The finished piece, The Edge of Chaos is named for an extinction theory that describes the way that one small extinction or climate change can be the tipping point toward a mass extinction. Though the mammoth sits on the edge, it is the burden of human civilization on his back that begins to crumble into the abyss. The skeletal architecture of human spaces is weak in comparison to the heavy, powerful pachyderm. This piece speaks to humanity’s precarious place in nature, and our proximity to the edge of chaos.



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Recent Additions to the Prehistoric Circus

Here are the final pieces in the Prehistoric Circus series that I have worked on for the past two years. This series focuses on placing prehistoric animals in a circus setting, allowing the viewer to encounter the unknown, the exotic, and the amazing mammals that lived millions of years ago.


The nostalgia of the circus provides a connection to the child like joy I find in discovering new animals for the first time. Elements of the circus in each piece create an alternate timeline in which the viewer can travel back and experience the power of these majestic animals. They find themselves on velvet cushions swaying on the back of an ancient giant in an unknown landscape. Colors and intricate patterns are fading; the paint peels and wood rots away under heavy feet and wrinkled hide. As time passes, the animals march on and adapt. Enduring the years like a weathered tapestry, they become the animals we know today.

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Each piece has a unique pattern. I start each pattern with light sketching like a pencil drawing. Some patterns get filled in with small stamps, or other embellishments. I also leave blank spaces in the pattern to be filled in later with decals, or transfers.




Many of my ideas for patterns are copied, or originate from Hindu patterns, and tiles from Iran like these. A lot of the patterns in the Hindu religion center around a Mandala, literally meaning circle. This circle is meant to draw in the human consciousness. The concentric design is meant to help people meditate and directs the mind to focus inward. Mandalas are also very balanced patterns that symbolize unity and harmony. I get lost when I carve these complex patterns, and its very meditative. It reminds me of the feeling I get when I lose myself in nature. When I walk in the woods I don’t have to get anywhere, or do anything, and I can be alone with my thoughts.

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Each of my pieces is made individually, and usually carved from a solid block. I use some small molds for patterns, and embellishment, but no molds are used for the animal forms. Each animal is carved or built from a solid block of clay, hollowed and reassembled.


I often use slab building to help me create some of the parts of my pieces. These tents were constructed and then added to the hollowed animal form. The patterns were carved and added last.


A lot of the pieces I made in this series were designed to march in a large parade. This parade was inspired by images of animals migrating in the wild, and the way they seemed to be on parade. I connected this to the free street parade that every circus gave to a new town it had arrived in. It was a way to display the animals, and various acts, and make people want to come and see the circus.



This inspired other pieces involving musical instruments, chariots, along with strange prehistoric animals to pull them.

Magnificant Migration-114These small pig-like animals are actually the earliest known elephant, Moertherium that lived 37 million years ago.  They are also distantly related to the sea cow. They looked a lot like pigs, or the modern day tapir. They were much smaller than their later relatives. Moeritheirum was believed to have spent a lot time in the water eating aquatic vegetation.

Size: 2.5 ft. tall, weighing 500 lbs.

Location: North Africa


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Much of the distressed surfaces in these pieces was inspired by my dad. He restores antique furniture, and I grew up watching chipped and cracking gold leaf enter his shop, and the beautiful, glittering, gilded surfaces that would leave it. I loved the way that these objects had stood the test of time, with so much original bright gold still shining through layers of dirt and grime. Their history was revealed in their destruction, but also their ability to survive. The aesthetic in my work is meant to show the beauty in objects that are weathered and worn.


A piece of gilded furniture from my dad’s shop

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The newest parade elephant is based on one of the strangest prehistoric elephant that I have researched. Platybelodon lived 15 million years ago. Platybelodon was in a special genus of elephants called gompotheres. This means that they had two sets of tusks, the top tusks being pointed, and the lower ones being flat like shovels. These shovel like tusks were believed to help them scoop up aquatic vegetation.

Size: 8 feet tall, weighing 5 tons

Location: Asia, Africa, and North America

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A Colossal Collapse is another Dumbo-inspired pyramid of prehistoric elephants. I love making these stacks of elephants because they are so precarious. The balance in them echoes the balance in nature, and how each animal is connected to the success of another. I also enjoy placing prehistoric elephants that existed in different times together in one piece. This idea was inspired by the paintings of Dutch still life painter Rachel Ruysch. Her paintings show flowers that bloom at different times of the year in the same bouquet. So this is an impossible composition that could never actually exist, but the fantasy creates something beautiful. I also love how she includes insects, and dying flowers in a lot of her work, to show the passage of time and the way decay in nature leads to new life.


These stacks of elephants start out like all my sculptures, as a solid mass on an armature. The difference here is that each elephant is slowly revealed from the mass and the clay eventually cut away from between the legs. The clay must be allowed to get dry to hold itself up, but not completely dry. This stiffness in ceramics is called leatherhard; the clay is flexible, but also able to be wet down and added to. Once this is achieved and the elephant forms are revealed, I cut each one off the other and pull it off the pipe armature you see here. I hollow each elephant, then reassemble the pyramid.




Detail being added to the hollowed, and reattached elephants.


Unfortunately, this top piece did not fit in my kiln! So the last elephant had to be fired separately and glued on. This is common in my practice. I am often using mixed media materials, and various epoxies to make my ideas a reality. I think the seemingly impossible balance in these pieces comes from the way I build them as one piece on an armature. the vertical pipes provide a perfect center of balance for the piece. This one did not need anything to help it balance on its own once it was fired.

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Hans the High Flyer is another giant ground sloth, though probably more acrobatic than the animal that inspired him. Giant ground sloths could be up to 20 ft. tall! I love the humor in this piece, and when he hangs in a gallery he swings just a little.

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The Prehistoric Circus will be displayed in a solo exhibition at the Beatrice M. Haggerty Gallery at the University of Dallas in January 2016.

You can learn more about this series in a recent article in the 100th issue of Ceramics Art and Perception, pgs. 36-39. Click Here to purchase a copy online.

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Even though this pivotal series has come to an end, I see many more animals on the horizon. I am currently beginning my graduate study in ceramics at the University of Florida. I have a lot of ideas for new pieces and will be documenting my experiments, research, and process right here. Click the Follow button below to receive updates about new work, and see where the parade will take me!

Photo Credit: Chirstopher Kemler

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The Prehistoric Circus: Process and Concept

The Prehistoric Circus is my most recent series of ceramic sculptures. Here I will discuss the process involved with these pieces, the prehistoric mammals they are inspired by, and the concepts behind them.

1150631_971265690634_203117654_oI always start with an armature and start packing clay onto it in a solid mass. The armature can vary depending on the pose and size of the piece I am sculpting.

20130930_153449Once the piece is roughed out enough I can begin hollowing. I leave all detail until after the hollowing process because I will have to cut through the solid piece.


The hollowing process often takes much longer than it took to sculpt the solid form. On larger pieces hollowing can take up to one week. I make sure all the walls are as thin as possible, compressed, and even, so I do not have to use any internal structures.

20140101_165214Once pieces are reassembled I start carving in all fine details and textures. Thin, or delicate parts like ears, tails and trunks will be put on as late as possible to prevent them from drying out while all the detail is being done.

???????????????????????????????All detail is a combination of techniques. Patterns like this one are drawn on first by hand, then embellished with carving, stamping, and later stencils and patterns.


Some of the embellishments are made using a plaster press mold of machined patterns. I can press wet clay into this mold to get an impression of something more architectural for some pieces.

20130916_171904Once all detail is completed pieces are bisque fired once to cone 04 (1940 degrees F) before any glazes are applied.

DSC05008After the bisque firing, stains and glazes are applied in several layers. Sanding through and roughing the surface of these layers gives the effect of an aged surface.


The surfaces on my pieces all start with layers of stains, slips or underglazes. These are often followed by engobes and or more underglaze.


I often use paper cut out stencils, rice paper decals, and slip trailers to add pattern to areas that I left blank of any carving or stamping in the wet clay. This gives the surfaces depth by showing both printed and carved elements together, and creates a more mysterious looking surface.

DSC05120I usually hand paint most of the color in using small brushes. On pieces like the elephants, one layer of their skin is done first, then the pattern and colors on the blankets are completely finished before I apply the crawling skin glaze to the elephant body. This is so runs and drips don’t ruin the finished skin surface while I work on the blankets.

DSC05103The half way point of the glazing I do looks finished, but this is before I do the distressing on the surface that makes the pieces look older. Once I reach this point, I sand off the dry, but not fired, glazes and slips in places. This reveals the layers of darker color, stain or engobe underneath and makes the surface look worn. I also use an exacto knife to make the painted surface look chipped off in places. After that, a brown, or black underglaze wash is applied with a spray bottle to create runs and stains. Until the piece looks more like this.

DSC05090After the piece is fired I will do a copper carbonate wash. This creates a dingy effect in some places.

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Some of the pieces receive a cold finish surface, meaning I use non fired materials like paint, or wood stain.  In this piece the base is a ceramic surface, and the saber cat is a cold finish using house paint and wax encaustic.


Here are some of the finished pieces from these processes, as well as the information about the animals. The prehistoric circus is a series that is inspiring me to create sculptures of animals that bring joy and interest to the audience. Most exotic or strange animals were at one point, only seen at the circus. I use the circus setting to display these fascinating prehistoric animals in a grand setting and introduce them to viewer. I hope that this allows people to experience the wonder and excitement I feel when I discover that these animals actually existed and their amazing feats of evolution.


Photo by Chris Kemler


Bozo the Dodo

The Dodo:

This commonly known prehistoric bird dates back almost 45 million years ago. The first recorded mention of the Dodo was by Dutch sailors in 1598. In the following years, the bird was hunted by sailors, their domesticated animals, and invasive species introduced during that time. The last known of the species went extinct in the 17th Century leaving behind their closest living relatives the Nicobar pigeon.

Size: 3 ft. tall, weighing 20-40 lbs.

Location: The island of

Mauritius, east of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean


Photo by Chris Kemler


Cage Wagon I

Pulled by Brontoherium (Megacerops)

This species of rhinoceros lived about 40 million years ago. Brontotherium had a pair of blunt horns on their snout with the horns of males being much larger than those of the females. Despite resembling a rhinoceros, it was larger than any living rhinoceros: the living animal easily approached the size of the African forest elephant, the third largest land animal today.

Size: 8.2 feet at the shoulder

Location: North America

Cage holding Dinofelis

A saber-toothed cat that lived about 8 million years ago. In size they were between a modern leopard and a lion, most being about the size of a jaguar, medium-sized but powerful cats that possessed two prominent sabre teeth.

Size: 2-3 feet tall

Location: Europe, Asia, Africa, and North America


Photo by Chris Kemler

Gunter the Miraculous Megatherium



A giant ground sloth that lived 5 million years ago. Megatherium was the largest of ground sloths that ranged in size. This animal’s large claws were believed to be used to scrape leaves off of branches. Megatherium is believed to be an omnivore like some modern day bears.

Size: About 20 ft. tall, weighing 4 tons

Location: Central and South America

Photo by Chris Kemler

Photo by Chris Kemler

Photo by Chris Kemler

Photo by Chris Kemler










Colombian Mammoth

The Columbian mammoth was a savanna and grassland inhabitant, similar to the modern African elephant that lived 2 million years ago. A pair of Columbian Mammoth tusks discovered in central Texas was the largest ever found for any member of the elephant family at 16 feet long. The Waco Mammoth Site in Waco, TX holds the record for the largest known concentration of skeletons of mammoths believed to have died in the same event

Size: 13 ft. tall, weighing 10 tons

Location: North America and South America


Photo by Chris Kemler

King of Cats


Smilodon Fatalis

The best known of prehistoric cats, also known as the saber-toothed tiger lived 2.5 million years ago. However, Smilodon is not related to the tiger or any other living big cat today. Many of the best fossils found of smilodon were discovered at the La Brea Tar Pits. Overall, Smilodon was more robustly built than any modern cat, with particularly well-developed forelimbs and exceptionally long upper canines. Its jaw had a bigger gape than modern cats and its upper canines were slender and fragile, being adapted for precision killing. These attributes made Smilodon a specialized hunter of large herbivores like bison and camels.

Size: About 6 ft. long, weighing close to 500 lbs.

Location: North America

Photo by Chris Kemler

Photo by Chris Kemler

The Balloon Horse Jupiter


This extinct horse lived about 20 million years ago. It had three toes on each foot, two small toes on either side of a main hoof. This is the first horse known to have grazed. Merychippus is very closely related to the modern day horse, and it was the first equine to have the distinctive head shape of today’s horses.

Size: 3.5 ft. tall

Location: North America


Photo by Chris Kemler

Kala Nag

Palaeoloxodon Antiquus (The Straight Tusked Elephant)

One of the earliest species of elephant that lived 400,000 years ago, closely related to the modern day Asian elephant. Palaeoloxodon antiquus was a forest elephant, and was the largest species living in Europe until the end of the Pleistocene epoch.

Size: 13 ft. at the shoulder and up to 14 ft. long

Location: Bilzingsleben, Germany, Cyprus, Japan, Sicily and Malta


Photo by Chris Kemler

Silver Star


An early horse species that lived 50 million years ago. Distinctive features include four small hoof-like toes on the front feet and three toes on the hind feet. These toes eventually evolved into the single hoof on horses we know today.

Size: 2 ft. at the shoulder

Location: North America, Wyoming and Oregon


Photo by Chris Kemler

A Mighty Mountain of Mammoths

Anancus (Center)

This prehistoric elephant lived about 9 million years ago. It had two tusks, whereas most other gomphotheres had four. Aside from its somewhat shorter legs, Anancus was also different from modern elephants in that its tusks were much longer, up to 4 metres (13 ft) in length. The tusks were possibly defense weapons not unlike elephants of today.

Size: 9 ft. tall, weighing 6 tons

Location: Africa, Europe, and Asia

Cuvieronius (Sides)

A prehistoric elephant that existed 5 million years ago. Cuvieronius is famous for being one of the few prehistoric elephants (the only other documented example is Stegomastodon) to have colonized South America, taking advantage of the “Great American Interchange” that connected North and South America a few million years ago. This smallish elephant was distinguished by its long, spiraling tusks, reminiscent of those found on a narwhal.

Size: 9 ft. tall

Location: North America and South America


Photo by Ron Jenkins Fort Worth Star Telegram

To read the article from the Fort Worth Star Telegram about The Prehistoric Circus exhibition click here.



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Palaeoartistry: Sculpting at the Fort Worth Museum of Science and History


I recently participated in an event called iPLAY at the Fort Worth Museum of Science and History. This event was created to celebrate the combination of science and technology with art. As a demonstrator I showed my techniques for sculpting prehistoric animals using animal anatomy and science as tools to recreate an extinct animal.

For this demonstration I sculpted Megaloceros, also known as the Irish Elk. This prehistoric elk had an antler span of about 12 feet, and was over 6 feet tall. Here is an illustration by another palaeoartist, Charles R. Knight.

CK1Tlascaux-elkThis painted image of Megaloceros is from the Lascaux cave in France. These cave paintings are some of the earliest palaeoart, describing the animals in detail.

DSC01573Here is Megaloceros as I first saw him at the Paris Natural History Museum. In the glass case you can see another palaoartist’s bronze reconstruction. Museums often use palaeoart to show people what extinct species might have looked like. I use skeletons like this one along with modern day descendants of the animal I am sculpting to get a realistic reconstruction. For this piece I used the elk as my main modern day anatomical reference.

970011_10151549241264109_1394291812_nMy sculpture started with a pipe armature screwed to a board and some wires inside the neck, head, and antlers. I used oil clay for this demonstration. Once finished the oil clay will be molded in rubber to make a wax version for a bronze sculpture.

1098369_10151551002039109_2094373660_nHere is the finished piece. The demonstration lasted two full days, which is about how long a piece this size takes. I had such a great time volunteering for this event at the museum. It was really fun to tell the kids that attended all about prehistoric animals like this one. Nothing comes as close to how I feel about prehistoric animals as the reactions I got from telling people that this giant deer was not made up.


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The Bronze Process

The lost wax bronze casting process has a very long history in art; going back to ancient Greece when bronze sculptures were first made. The process is very long, and involves a lot of techniques and expensive equipment, so most artists go to a foundry to have their work cast.  I work part time at Schaefer Art Bronze in Arlington back in Texas. Right now while I am at the Armory I have been working on a new bronze piece. I am learning to do all the steps of the process myself. First, I started with an original sculpture.

Once this oil clay sculpture is complete it is ready for cutting and molding. a piece like this has to be cut into multiple sections to be molded because the forms are too complex to cast in one piece.

Each rhino was cut off of the base at the ankles, leaving the feet attached to the base. The rhinos were then cut in half to simplify the forms and make a nice open space on each half to pour the wax into the mold.

The base will be a  simple one piece mold. All the parts of the sculpture were set up on boards that left a 2-3 inch boarder all the way around the piece.

I used thin metal sheet to shim the seam line between the two halves of each rhino. This will be the divider between the rubber that will make it a two piece mold. Plastic keys were used to create a locking mechanism between the pieces of rubber. The pieces are all sealed with a layer of spray shellac and a layer of universal mold release. This will keep the rubber from sticking to the shims or to the oil clay.

Once the shimming was complete I used urethane rubber to make the molds of each rhino. Urethane rubber or silicone rubber is usually used to mold pieces for bronze because they release the waxes very well. Urethane molds can also be used to cast resin and some plastics. I started these molds by painting on a thin layer of the mixed rubber and once this was tacky, I was able to continue adding layers of rubber until thick enough in all areas.

When the rubber molds were completely set, the edges were trimmed and the rubber was sprayed with a few coats of epoxy parfilm. Since these molds were being made with a resin mother mold, epoxy parfilm keeps the resin from sticking to the rubber.

To make a mother mold, resin is mixed and poured out on cardboard. Fiber glass sheets are cut up into squares and patted into the resin until soaked. These are laid on the rubber and built up in several layers.

A mother mold is a hard shell that holds the rubber in the correct shape when you pour waxes. The fiber glass acts as a weave holding the resin together. This method makes a strong and lightweight mother mold.

When the resin has set the molds are ground with an angle grinder on the edges and the mother mold is pulled away from the rubber.

Once the molds were cleaned, and bolted together tightly the waxes were poured.

The waxes are removed from the molds and chased. This means that I sculpt on the wax to restore original textures and small details that were distorted in the mold and melt down seams from where the two halves met.

Because the base of this piece is so large it is cut in half. Wax rods called sprues are used in gating the waxes. Gating provides channels for the bronze metal to flow quickly and evenly to all parts of the sculpture.

The rhinos are also cast in two halves on one sprue tree. This will make it easier to dip the pieces in ceramic shell, and make the welding in the metal less difficult to work on.

Ceramic shell is a mixture of fused silica and a binder. The waxes are dipped in this mixture and then covered with fused silica sand.

The piece is dipped in the shell multiple times. The shell dries hard and solid making a negative impression of the inside and outside of each part of the sculpture, acting like a “shell”.

After the shell has dried it is fired in a burnout kiln and the wax is melted out. This firing hardens the shell so that it can then hold the molten bronze.

DSC03867After the bronze is poured and has cooled, the ceramic shell has to be broken off the metal and sandblasted clean.

20130614_154823Once the metal pieces are cast, they have to be lined up and welded. 20130614_141849Welding leaves a thick bead like a seam that then has to be ground down and made to match the texture of the piece.

20130618_114219Once all the pieces are welded together it is sandblasted clean one more time before it is given a patina.

20130619_134507To patina bronze a torch is used to heat the metal so that it can be sprayed with different chemicals. The heat allows the chemicals to react with the metal and create a color on the surface. Brushes and scrubbing pads can be used to create highlights in the patina.

Here is an image of the finished piece!

DSC04580“Clash of the Titans”


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